As a result stone vessel manufacturing reached a high level of technical competency during the Early Dynastic (c. 2700-2200 BC) periods, were they were made in very large numbers.
After the Old Kingdom, stone vessels continued to be made, but on a much lesser scale.
Even when the absolute dates are available, we have to supplement the information with relative dating.
Basing on this principle, the cultural assemblages found in different layers can be assigned a chronological personality. In practice it is found that the mounds are disturbed9 by all sorts of pits and dumps.
For example, if the cultural contents of the lower deposit are Mauryan in character, appropriately this deposit may be assigned a date between 400-200 B. Similarly, if the cultural equipment of the upper deposit are of the Sunga period, this deposit has to placed between 200-73 B. Quite often, the archaeologist decided the change of stratum on the basis of the feed of the deposit.
A wide variety of different rocks and mineral were employed in their manufacture, and these materials often varied over time as availability and aesthetics changed (Fig. The rocks and minerals came from numerous sources throughout Egypt, and some types were imported from afar, such as obsidian and lapis lazuli (Nicholson & Shaw 2000).
These raw materials were either collected as eroded debris or quarried from rock outcrops.
The late Predynastic period of Upper Egypt was generally characterized by an increasing shift away from pottery of fine craftsmanship to stone vessels for use in tombs.
This may reflect a shift in the direction of consumer demands of the elite, with an emphasis on exotic luxury goods for the afterlife, and the increasing economic difference between the ruling class and the rest of the populous (Hoffman 1979).
The deposit thus occurring forms layers depending on the nature of the material brought in by the people inhabiting the area.
According to this method, the upper deposits are younger and the lower deposits are older.
The earliest stone toolmaking developed by at least 2.6 million years ago.