In tracer applications radioactive isotopes are employed, for example, to measure the effectiveness of motor oils on the wearability of alloys for piston rings and cylinder walls in automobile engines.For additional information about industrial uses, techniques, which are based on the principle that a particular radioisotope (radioactive parent) in geologic material decays at a constant known rate to daughter isotopes.They can be administered selectively to malignant tumours and so minimize damage to adjacent healthy tissue.).
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If smoke enters the alarm, this absorbs the a particles, the current reduces, and the alarm sounds. In paper mills, the thickness of the paper can be controlled by measuring how much beta radiation passes through the paper to a Geiger counter.
The counter controls the pressure of the rollers to give the correct thickness.
As radioisotopes are identical chemically with stable isotopes of the same element, they can take the place of the latter in physiological processes.
Moreover, because of their radioactivity, they can be readily traced even in minute quantities with such detection devices as gamma-ray spectrometers and proportional counters.
The age of the ancient organic materials can be found by measuring the amount of Carbon-14 that is left.
The most common tracer is called Technetium-99 and is very safe because it only emits gamma rays and doesn't cause much ionisation.is a technique used by scientists to learn the ages of biological specimens – for example, wooden archaeological artifacts or ancient human remains – from the distant past.It can be used on objects as old as about 62,000 years.Smoke alarms contain a weak source made of Americium-241.Alpha particles are emitted from here, which ionise the air, so that the air conducts electricity and a small current flows.Radiocarbon dating uses isotopes of the element carbon. Cosmic rays – high energy particles from beyond the solar system – bombard Earth’s upper atmosphere continually, in the process creating the unstable carbon-14. Because it’s unstable, carbon-14 will eventually decay back to carbon-12 isotopes.